In the late 60s—early 70s of the twentieth century British scientist James Lovelock pointed to the fact that the gaseous composition of modern terrestrial atmosphere is far from the dynamic physico-chemical equilibrium that could be determined by the incoming solar radiation. Lovelock suggested that the contemporary non-equilibrium environmental conditions on Earth are maintained in a life-compatible state by life itself. According to the so-called Gaia hypothesis put forward by J. Lovelock Lovelock, ; , our planet can be viewed as a single superorganism. On a geological time scale this superorganism is able to compensate unfavourable environmental changes of geophysical and cosmic nature e. Gaia hypothesis ignores the fundamental fact that there are no types of living objects from unicellular and multicellular organisms to social and ecological communities of organisms that might be called "superorganisms" that would exist in a single number like Gaia.
Principles of clinical management of ovarian cancer
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Guiliana Soraya Victoria, Chiara Zurzolo; The spread of prion-like proteins by lysosomes and tunneling nanotubes: Implications for neurodegenerative diseases. J Cell Biol 4 September ; 9 : — Although the proteins involved in the various diseases are unrelated, common pathways appear to be used for their intercellular propagation and spreading. We focus in particular on the common roles that lysosomes and tunneling nanotubes play in the formation and spreading of prion-like assemblies. The pathological hallmark of a number of neurodegenerative diseases NDs is the deposition of protein aggregates in the brain into intracellular or extracellular inclusions.